Hypnotherapy – Hypnosis – Manipulation
I went to the University of Washington Medical School. Not really. I took one course there. In law school I had the right to take a few electives in my last year. I convinced Dean Harry Cross that somehow a hypnotherapy class at the Medical School might somehow be relevant to the practice of law. It was a fascinating class, and yes, it is relevant.
Meditation is a form of self-hypnosis. Hypnosis is a form of other-directed meditation. The advantage of hypnosis over meditation is that the therapist does the leading. In meditation doing your own leading tends to make your meditation less deep.
The Quakers meditate. They say they are listening for the voice of God. Their prayers are short. Mostly they meditate. Sometimes their services involve mostly people sitting quietly for long periods listening for answers and insights.
The ethical hypnotherapist makes an oral agreement with the subject regarding the topics to be discussed. The therapist assures the subject that he can wake up whenever he wants and that he will remember everything discussed. The therapist will encourage recording of the session. Hypnotherapy can be very helpful. Random thoughts are quieted. The subject can then focus on deep issues and perhaps find a stronger self within that can help him end an undesirable behavior or become more committed to some greater purpose.
Entertainment hypnotists can trick subjects into believing things which are no so. “You are barefooted, and you cannot see your shoes”.
Usually (but not always) the subject remains in control. He can wake up if he wants and usually (but not always) cannot be directed to do things with violate his principles.
Just as meditation and hypnosis overlap, so also does hypnosis and advertising and propaganda. People can be manipulated into believing the strangest things through a combination of factors including: presentation by a believable presenter such as a doctor or dentist, repetition, some credible arguments which appear to prove the case, a creation of prejudice against those who disagree, such as suggesting that those who oppose fluoridation are conspiracy theorists, providing pat answers so that exits from manipulation can be prevented.
Edward Bernays was an authority on propaganda and mass manipulation. He was employed by the pork industry to promote the eating of fatty animal products several times daily. He hired doctors to promote smoking, particularly among women. And he was as fluoride pusher. He was remarkably successful.
“One of Bernays’s favorite techniques for manipulating public opinion was the indirect use of “third party authorities” to plead his clients’ causes. “If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway”, he said. In order to promote sales of bacon, for example, he conducted a survey of physicians and reported their recommendation that people eat heavy breakfasts. He sent the results of the survey to 5,000 physicians, along with publicity touting bacon and eggs as a heavy breakfast.”
Millions of people are manipulated through advertising to do things harmful to themselves but profitable to big companies. When I check out at the grocery or 7Eleven, I am amazed at the display of candy, none of which I would ever consume. Yet millions do. They are not in a deep state of hypnosis, but they are under the influence of a manipulative suggestion – that eating refined sugar is not harmful, that we need to eat meat in large amounts, that it is healthy to drink milk, that tetraethyl lead is a safe and effective way to lessen pre-ignition of fuel. There are many examples.
Fluoridation is a profitable scam for fertilizer companies. Low value toxic waste is turned into high value dental medicine. Even if pharmaceutical grade fluoride might somehow be helpful for teeth when applied topically, how can rational people believe that it is acceptable to consume toxic waste grade fluoride which contains billions of atoms of lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and thallium per liter, and which leaches very large amounts of lead from plumbing? It is done through mass manipulation, a form of mass hypnosis.
Thanks to: http://hypnosiscentral.net/masshypnosis.html
Mass hypnosis is the ability to hypnotize large amounts of people at a time, persuading them to take action in some way. It is a technique commonly used in marketing and politics, but most famous for its use in stage hypnosis shows.
The reason mass hypnosis is not recognised by the general public, is because the general public, being us, are hypnotized on such a frequent basis that we’re so used to being hypnotized, that we’re no longer aware of it.
Have you ever watched a commercial on TV advertising some food or drink product? Have you then thought about eating or drinking what was advertised? Perhaps whatever was being advertised made you think “I’d really like that for dinner” and you were disappointed with what you were eating that night, even though the food being advertised was most likely junk food in comparison to a healthy, home cooked meal.
You were, believe it or not, placed into a state of trance and subliminally suggested that you wanted to eat that product. Even if it wasn’t that night, the suggestion would remain in your head, and perhaps even in a week’s time, you’d end up eating the product that was advertised.
You think that you’re in control of your life, that nothing is capable of influencing you without you first judging it, little do you know that you are being hypnotized by many different organisations on a daily basis. The actions you think are of your own free will, are actually influenced by these external organisations.
What if you could use this same ability of mass hypnosis, and apply it to your every day life? What if you could hypnotize vast amounts of people to buy a product from you, to believe in a cause, or to just become your friend?
Using the techniques taught in mass hypnosis, you can do all this. Mass hypnosis works by creating some sense of rapport with your audience. The audience must feel as if they have some connection with you, as if they’ve known you forever, even if it’s from a subconscious level.
Once this feeling of rapport has been created, you must exploit a desire of your audience, something they need. Most of our needs are instinctual, meaning that we’re not even aware that we conciously need them, we just acquire them from a subconscious level. Your need to eat and drink are both instinctual, they have become such a part of you that you don’t think “Hmm, should I eat or drink today..” you just do.
There are many other instintual urges within us, such as a desire to make money and further ourselves in life, to go out with a beautiful spouse that we get on well with, to acquire something better than our neighbour – be it a nicer car, a nicer home, a nicer job, our instintual urges are endless.
Using mass hypnosis we can play on these instintual urges. People have an instinctual need for security, that is why politicians will often talk about increasing nationality security, to give people comfort, to fulfill this “need for security”. Whether or not that security is needed is irrelevant.
Once you have established rapport with an audience, and make them believe that you will satisfy one of their instinctual needs, the audience will effectively be yours to manipulate. You may tell them whatever it is that is needed in order to satisfy that need of theirs, and they will look to you as the authority that can provide it.
Used for bad intentions, mass hypnosis can be incredibly damaging. Many fake industries such as the psychic, scientology and other massive money maker industries all prey on the vulnerability of people to make them believe that their urges can be satisfied.
Used for good intentions, mass hypnosis can deliver a useful product or service to large amounts of people. A charismatic leader who is able to sway vast amounts of people to undertake a noble cause us utilising techniques taught in mass hypnosis for a good purpose, provided the cause is indeed noble.
Thanks to: http://hypnosiscentral.net/masshypnosis.html
EDWARD LOUIS BERNAYS
As for Bernay’s many accomplishments, he also worked with a vast number of famous clients, including President Calvin Coolidge, Procter & Gamble, CBS, the United Fruit Company, the American Tobacco Company, General Electric, Dodge Motors, and the fluoridationists of the Public Health Service. … Bernays helped the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) and other special interest groups to convince the American public that water fluoridation was safe and beneficial to human health. This was achieved by using the American Dental Association in a highly successful media campaign
Edward Louis Bernays (November 22, 1891 – March 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as “the father of public relations”. He combined the ideas of Gustave Le Bon and Wilfred Trotter on crowd psychology with the psychoanalytical ideas of his uncle, Sigmund Freud.
He felt this manipulation was necessary in society, which he regarded as irrational and dangerous as a result of the ‘herd instinct‘ that Trotter had described. Adam Curtis‘s award-winning 2002 documentary for the BBC, The Century of the Self, pinpoints Bernays as the originator of modern public relations, and Bernays was named one of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century by Life magazine.
Life and influences
Born 1891 in Vienna to Jewish parents, Bernays was a double nephew of psychoanalysis pioneer Sigmund Freud. His father was Ely Bernays, brother of Freud’s wife Martha Bernays. In 1892 his family moved to New York City, where he attended DeWitt Clinton High School. In 1912 he graduated from Cornell University with a degree in agriculture, but chose journalism as his first career. He married Doris E. Fleischman in 1922.
Bernays, working for the administration of Woodrow Wilson during World War I with the Committee on Public Information, was influential in promoting the idea that America’s war efforts were primarily aimed at “bringing democracy to all of Europe”. Following the war, he was invited by Woodrow Wilson to attend the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
Stunned by the degree to which the democracy slogan had swayed the public both at home and abroad, he wondered whether this propaganda model could be employed during peace time. Due to negative implications surrounding the word propaganda because of its use by the Germans in World War II, he promoted the term “Public Relations”. According to the BBC interview with Bernays’s daughter Anne, Bernays felt that the public’s democratic judgment was “not to be relied upon” and he feared that “they [the American public] could very easily vote for the wrong man or want the wrong thing, so that they had to be guided from above”. This “guidance” was interpreted by Anne to mean that her father believed in a sort of “enlightened despotism” ideology.
This thinking was heavily shared and influenced by Walter Lippmann, one of the most prominent American political columnists at the time. Bernays and Lippmann sat together on the U.S. Committee on Public Information, and Bernays quotes Lippmann extensively in his seminal work Propaganda.
Bernays also drew on the ideas of the French writer Gustave LeBon, the originator of crowd psychology, and of Wilfred Trotter, who promoted similar ideas in the anglophone world in his book Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. Bernays refers to these two names in his writings. Trotter, who was a head and neck surgeon at University College Hospital, London, read Freud’s works, and it was he who introduced Wilfred Bion, whom he lived and worked with, to Freud’s ideas. When Freud fled Vienna for London after the Anschluss, Trotter became his personal physician, and Wilfred Bion and Ernest Jones became key members of the Freudian psychoanalysis movement in England, and would develop the field of Group Dynamics, largely associated with the Tavistock Institute where many of Freud’s followers worked. Thus ideas of group psychology and psychoanalysis came together in London around World War II.
Bernays’s public relations efforts helped to popularize Freud’s theories in the United States. Bernays also pioneered the PR industry’s use of psychology and other social sciences to design its public persuasion campaigns:
If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it? The recent practice of propaganda has proved that it is possible, at least up to a certain point and within certain limits.
He called this scientific technique of opinion-molding the ‘engineering of consent‘.
Bernays began his career as press agent in 1913, counseling to theaters, concerts and the ballet. In 1917, US President Woodrow Wilson engaged George Creel and realizing one of his ideas, he founded the Committee on Public Information. Bernays, Carl Byoir and John Price Jones worked together to influence public opinion towards supporting American participation in World War I.
In 1919, he opened an office as Public Relations Counselor in New York. He held the first Public Relations course at New York University in 1923, publishing the first groundbreaking book on public relations entitled Crystallizing Public Opinion that same year.
As for Bernay’s many accomplishments, he also worked with a vast number of famous clients, including President Calvin Coolidge, Procter & Gamble, CBS, the United Fruit Company, the American Tobacco Company, General Electric, Dodge Motors, and the fluoridationists of the Public Health Service. Beyond his contributions to these famous and powerful clients, Bernays revolutionized public relations by combining traditional press agentry with the techniques of psychology and sociology to create what one writer has called “the science of ballyhoo”.
Bernays refined and popularized the use of the press release, following its invention by PR man Ivy Lee, who had issued a press release after the 1906 Atlantic City train wreck. One of the most famous campaigns of Bernays was the women’s cigarette smoking campaign in 1920s. Bernays helped the smoking industry overcome one of the biggest social taboos of the time: women smoking in public. Women were only allowed to smoke in designated areas, or not at all. If caught violating this rule, women would have been arrested. Bernays staged the 1929 Easter parade in New York City, showing models holding lit Lucky Strike cigarettes, or “Torches of Freedom“. After the historical public event, women started lighting up more than ever before. It was through Bernays that women’s smoking habits started to become socially acceptable. Bernays created this event as news, which, of course, it wasn’t. Bernays convinced industries that the news, not advertising, was the best medium to carry their message to an unsuspecting public.
One of Bernays’s favorite techniques for manipulating public opinion was the indirect use of “third party authorities” to plead his clients’ causes. “If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway”, he said. In order to promote sales of bacon, for example, he conducted a survey of physicians and reported their recommendation that people eat heavy breakfasts. He sent the results of the survey to 5,000 physicians, along with publicity touting bacon and eggs as a heavy breakfast.
Bernays also drew upon his uncle Sigmund’s psychoanalytic ideas for the benefit of commerce in order to promote, by indirection, commodities as diverse as cigarettes, soap and books.
In addition to the theories of his uncle, Bernays used those of Ivan Pavlov.
PR industry historian Scott Cutlip describes Bernays as “perhaps the most fabulous and fascinating individual in public relations, a man who was bright, articulate to excess, and most of all, an innovative thinker and philosopher of this vocation that was in its infancy when he opened his office in New York in June 1919.”
Bernays used the “Freudian Theory” to deal with the public’s conception of communism, as he believed that we should not be easing the public’s fear of communism, but rather promote that fear and play with the public’s emotions of it. This theory in its own was so powerful that it became a weapon of its own during the cold war.
Philosophy and public relations
Bernays’s papers, opened in April 2010, contain a wealth of information on the founding of the field in the twenties. The Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel Edward L. Bernays (1965) contains an overview of the decade. Many of the essays selected for the Coolidge-Consumerism collection from the Bernays Papers were written as early drafts for The Biography of an Idea.
Bernays, who pursued his calling in New York City from 1919 to 1963, styled himself a “public relations counsel.” He had very pronounced views on the differences between what he did and what people in advertising did. A pivotal figure in the orchestration of elaborate corporate advertising campaigns and multi-media consumer spectacles, he nevertheless is among those listed in the acknowledgments section of the seminal government social science study “Recent Social Trends in the United States” (1933).
On a par with Bernays as the most sought-after public relations counsel of the decade was Ivy Ledbetter Lee, among whose chief clients were John D. Rockefeller, Sr., Bethlehem Steel, Armour & Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Lee is represented in the Coolidge-Consumerism collection by “Publicity: Some of the Things It Is and Is Not” (1925).
The belief that propaganda and news were legitimate tools of his business, and his ability to offer philosophical justifications for these beliefs that ultimately embraced the whole democratic way of life, in Bernays’s mind set his work in public relations apart from what ad men did. The Bernays essays “A Public Relations Counsel States His Views” (1927) and “This Business of Propaganda” (1928) show that Bernays regarded advertising men as special pleaders, merely paid to persuade people to accept an idea or commodity. The public relations counsel, on the other hand, he saw as an Emersonian-like creator of events that dramatized new concepts and perceptions, and even influenced the actions of leaders and groups in society.
Bernays’s vision was of a utopian society in which individuals’ dangerous libidinal energies, the psychic and emotional energy associated with instinctual biological drive that Bernays viewed as inherently dangerous given his observation of societies like the Germans under Hitler, could be harnessed and channeled by a corporate elite for economic benefit. Through the use of mass production, big business could fulfill constant craving of the inherently irrational and desire-driven masses, simultaneously securing the niche of a mass production economy (even in peacetime), as well as sating the dangerous animal urges that threatened to tear society apartif left unquelled.
Bernays’s magisterial, philosophical touch is in evidence in “Manipulating Public Opinion” (1928) when he writes: “This is an age of mass production. In the mass production of materials a broad technique has been developed and applied to their distribution. In this age, too, there must be a technique for the mass distribution of ideas.” Yet he recognized the potential danger in so grand a scheme and in “This Business of Propaganda” (1928), as elsewhere, sounded the great caveat to his vision: a public relations counsel “must never accept a retainer or assume a position which puts his duty to the groups he represents above his duty to society.”
In Propaganda (1928), Bernays argued that the manipulation of public opinion was a necessary part of democracy:
- The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. …We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. …In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons…who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.
Articles in the journals of opinion, such as the one by Marlen Pew, Edward L. Bernays Critiqued as “Young Machiavelli of Our Time”, and the debate between Bernays and Everett Dean Martin in Forum, Are We Victims of Propaganda?, depicted Bernays negatively. He and other publicists were often attacked as propagandists and deceptive manipulators, who represented lobby groups against the public interest and covertly contrived events that secured coverage as news stories, free of charge, for their clients instead of securing attention for them through paid advertisements.
Bernays’s brilliance for promotion in this vein emerges clearly when one reads, in the Bernays Typescript on Publicizing the New Dodge Cars, 1927-1928: “Two Sixes”, the story of how he managed to secure newspaper coverage for the radio programs he developed to promote the Dodge Brothers’ new six-cylinder cars. The Bernays Typescript on Publicizing the Fashion Industry, 1925-27: “Hats and Stockings” and the Bernays Typescript on Art in the Fashion Industry, 1923-1927, reveal a similar flair for consumer manipulation in the arena of fashion.
As is evident from the description of his campaign to publicize the Dodge cars, Bernays had a particular gift for the marketing strategy called the “tie-up” or “tie-in”. In this strategy, one venue, opportunity, or occasion for promoting a consumer product, for example, radio advertising, is linked to another, say, newspaper advertising, and even, at times, to a third, say a department store exhibition salesroom featuring the item, and possibly even a fourth, such as an important holiday, for example Thrift Week.
In addition to famous corporate clients, such as Procter & Gamble, the American Tobacco Company, Cartier Inc., Best Foods, CBS, the United Fruit Company, General Electric, Dodge Motors, the fluoridationists of the Public Health Service, Knox-Gelatin, and innumerable other big names, Bernays also worked on behalf of many non-profit institutions and organizations. These included, to name just a few, the Committee on Publicity Methods in Social Work (1926–1927), the Jewish Mental Health Society (1928), the Book Publishers Research Institute (1930–1931), the New York Infirmary for Women and Children (1933), the Committee for Consumer Legislation (1934), the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy (1940), the Citywide Citizens’ Committee on Harlem (1942), and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (1954–1961). For the U.S. Government, he worked for the President’s Emergency Committee on Employment (1930–1932) and President Calvin Coolidge.
In the 1950s, some of his ideas and vision helped portray India as the most democratic republic in Asia by having the People’s Congress of India adapt a Bill of Rights. Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Assembly, and Freedom of Petition were added to the constitution of India.
The amusing Bernays Typescript on Public Relations Work and Politics, 1924: “Breakfast with Coolidge” shows that President Coolidge too was among his clients. Bernays was hired to improve Coolidge’s image before the 1924 presidential election.
Another selection from his papers, the Typescript on Publicizing the Physical Culture Industry, 1927: “Bernarr Macfadden“, reveals Bernays’s opinion of the leader of the physical culture movement. Yet another client, department store visionary Edward A. Filene, was the subject of the Typescript on a Boston Department Store Magnate. Bernays’s Typescript on the Importance of Samuel Strauss: “1924 – Private Life” shows that the public relations counsel and his wife were fans of consumerism critic Samuel Strauss.
- Some of the campaigns Bernays worked on:
- 1913 Bernays was hired by the actor Richard Bennett to protect a play that supported sex education against police interference. Bernays set up a front group called the “Medical Review of Reviews Sociological Fund” (officially concerned with fighting venereal disease) for the purpose of endorsing the play.
- 1915 Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes American tour convinced magazines to write articles that told people that Ballet is fun to watch.
- 1920 Successfully hosted the first NAACP convention in Atlanta, Georgia. His campaign was considered successful because there was no violence at the convention. His campaign focused on the important contributions of African-Americans to Whites living in the South. He later received an award from the NAACP for his contribution.
- In the 1920s, working for the American Tobacco Company, he sent a group of young models to march in the New York City parade. He then told the press that a group of women’s rights marchers would light “Torches of Freedom“. On his signal, the models lit Lucky Strike cigarettes in front of the eager photographers. The New York Times (1 April 1929) printed: “Group of Girls Puff at Cigarettes as a Gesture of ‘Freedom'”. This helped to break the taboo against women smoking in public. During this decade he also handled publicity for the NAACP.
- Bernays once engineered a “pancake breakfast” with vaudevillians for Calvin Coolidge in what is widely considered one of the first overt media acts for a president.
- Bernays used his uncle Sigmund Freud‘s ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that bacon and eggs was the true all-American breakfast.
- In October 1929, Bernays was involved in promoting “Light’s Golden Jubilee.” The event, which spanned across several major cities in the U.S., was designed to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Thomas Edison‘s invention of the light-bulb (though the light-bulb had been previously invented by Joseph Swan). The publicity elements of the Jubilee – including the special issuance of a U.S. postage stamp and Edison’s “re-creating” the invention of the light bulb for a nationwide radio audience – provided evidence of Bernays’s love for big ideas and “ballyhoo“. A follow up event staged in 1954 (and directed for television by David O. Selznick) was styled “Light’s Diamond Jubileee”.
- Bernays attempted to help Venida hair nets company to get women to wear their hair longer so they would use hair nets more. The campaign failed but did get government officials to require hair nets for some jobs.
- Bernays worked with Procter & Gamble for Ivory soap. The campaign successfully convinced people that Ivory soap was medically superior to other soaps. He also promoted soap through sculpting contests and floating contests because the soap floated better than its competitors.
- Bernays helped the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) and other special interest groups to convince the American public that water fluoridation was safe and beneficial to human health. This was achieved by using the American Dental Association in a highly successful media campaign. 
- In the 1930s, his Dixie Cup campaign was designed to convince consumers that only disposable cups were sanitary.
- In the 1930s, he attempted to convince women that Lucky Strike cigarettes’ forest green pack was the most fashionable color. Letters were written to interior and fashion designers, department stores, and prominent women of society pushing green as the new hot color for the season. Balls, gallery exhibitions, and window displays all featured green after Bernays got through with them. The result was that green did indeed become a very hot color for the 1934 season and Lucky Strike kept their pack color and female clientele intact.
- In 1939 he was the publicity director for the New York World’s Fair
- After his semi-retirement in the 1960s he worked with anti-smoker lawyer John Banzhaf’s group, ASH and supported other anti-smoking campaigns.
Overthrow of government of Guatemala
Bernays’s most extreme political propaganda activities were said to be conducted on behalf of the multinational corporation United Fruit Company (today’s Chiquita Brands International) and the U.S. government to facilitate the successful overthrow (see Operation PBSUCCESS) of the democratically elected president of Guatemala, General Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. Bernays’s propaganda (documented in the BBC documentary, The Century of the Self), branding Arbenz as communist, was published in major U.S. media. According to a book review by John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton of Larry Tye‘s biography of Bernays, The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of PR, “the term ‘banana republic‘ actually originated in reference to United Fruit’s domination of corrupt governments in Guatemala and other Central American countries.”
Recognition and criticism
Much of Bernays’s reputation today stems from his persistent public relations campaign to build his own reputation as “America’s No. 1 Publicist”. During his active years, many of his peers in the industry were offended by Bernays’s continuous self-promotion. According to Scott Cutlip, “Bernays was a brilliant person who had a spectacular career, but, to use an old-fashioned word, he was a braggart.”
“When a person would first meet Bernays”, says Cutlip, “it would not be long until Uncle Sigmund would be brought into the conversation. His relationship with Freud was always in the forefront of his thinking and his counseling.” According to Irwin Ross, another writer, “Bernays liked to think of himself as a kind of psychoanalyst to troubled corporations.” In the early 1920s, Bernays arranged an English-language translation of Freud’s General Introduction to Psychoanalysis for the US publication. In addition to publicizing Freud’s ideas, Bernays used his association with Freud to establish his own reputation as a thinker and theorist—a reputation that was further enhanced when Bernays authored several landmark texts of his own, most notably Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923, ISBN 0-87140-975-5), Propaganda (1928, ISBN 0-8046-1511-X) and “The Engineering of Consent” in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (March 1947).
Bernays defined the profession of “counsel on public relations” as a “practicing social scientist” whose “competence is like that of the industrial engineer, the management engineer, or the investment counselor in their respective fields.” To assist clients, PR counselors used “understanding of the behavioral sciences and applying them—sociology, social psychology, anthropology, history, etc.” In Propaganda, his most important book,Bernays argued that the scientific manipulation of public opinion was necessary to overcome chaos and conflict in society.
Bernays’s celebration of propaganda helped define public relations, but it did not win the industry many friends. In a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter described Bernays and Ivy Lee as “professional poisoners of the public mind, exploiters of foolishness, fanaticism and self-interest.” And history showed the flaw in Bernays’s identification of the “manipulation of the masses” as a natural and necessary feature of a democratic society. The fascist rise to power in Germany demonstrated that propaganda could be used to subvert democracy as easily as it could be used to “resolve conflict.”
In his 1965 autobiography, Bernays recalls a dinner at his home in 1933 where
- Karl von Wiegand, foreign correspondent of the Hearst newspapers, an old hand at interpreting Europe and just returned from Germany, was telling us about Goebbels and his propaganda plans to consolidate Nazi power. Goebbels had shown Wiegand his propaganda library, the best Wiegand had ever seen. Goebbels, said Wiegand, was using my book Crystallizing Public Opinion as a basis for his destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany. This shocked me. … Obviously the attack on the Jews of Germany was no emotional outburst of the Nazis, but a deliberate, planned campaign.
According to John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, in a published review of Larry Tye’s biography of Bernays,
- It is impossible to fundamentally grasp the social, political, economic and cultural developments of the past 100 years without some understanding of Bernays and his professional heirs in the public relations industry. PR is a 20th century phenomenon, and Bernays — widely eulogized as the “father of public relations” at the time of his death in 1995 — played a major role in defining the industry’s philosophy and methods.
As a result his legacy remains a highly contested one, as evidenced by Adam Curtis‘ 2002 BBC documentary The Century of the Self.
- The Broadway Anthology (1917, co-author)
- Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) OCLC 215243834
- A Public Relations Counsel (1927)
- An Outline of Careers; a practical guide to achievement by thirty-eight eminent Americans (1927)
- Verdict of public opinion on propaganda (1927)
- Propaganda (1928), Horace Liveright, ISBN 978-0-8046-1511-2
- This Business of Propaganda (1928)
- Universities—pathfinders in public opinion (1937)
- Careers for men; a practical guide to opportunity in business, written by thirty-eight successful Americans (1939)
- Speak up for democracy; what you can do—a practical plan of action for every American citizen (1940)
- Future of private enterprise in the post-war world (1942)
- Democratic leadership in total war (1943)
- Psychological blueprint for the peace—Canada, U.S.A. (1944)
- Public relations (1945)
- Take your place at the peace table (1945)
- What the British think of us; a study of British hostility to America and Americans and its motivation, with recommendations for improving Anglo-American relations (1950, co-author with his wife Doris Fleischman)
- Engineering of consent (1955, contributor) OCLC 550584
- Your future in public relations (1961)
- Biography of an idea: memoirs of public relations counsel (1965)
- Case for Reappraisal of U.S. Overseas Information Policies and Programs (Special Study) (1970), by Edward L. Bernays and Burnet Hershey (editors)
- Crowd manipulation
- Spin (political)
- Mass psychology
- Isaac Bernays (1792–1849) his grandfather
- Anne Bernays, his daughter
- Freud family, his relatives
- ^ The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/08/16/specials/bernays-obit.html.
- ^ Trotter (1919).
- ^ Ewen, Stuart (1996). “Chapter 1: Visiting Edward Bernays”. PR! A Social History Of Spin -Chapter 1. Basic Books.
- ^ Colford, Paul D. “A BIRTHDAY SALUTE TO THE FATHER OF PUBLIC RELATIONS For Immediate Release: Edward Bernays Is 100”, Newsday, December 5, 1991. Accessed September 14, 2009. “Through most of his life, home base was Manhattan, where Bernays grew up and graduated from P S 184 and DeWitt Clinton High School, then at 10th Avenue and 58th Street, before going on to Cornell University.”
- ^ Cook, Joan (July 12, 1980). Doris Fleischman Bernays Dead; Pioneer Public Relations Counsel. New York Times
- ^ See History of public relations
- ^ BBC. “THE CENTURY OF THE SELF”.
- ^ Edward Bernays Propaganda, 2005 ed., p47
- ^ Bernays, Edward L.; Cutler, H.W. (1955). The Engineering of Consent. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 8. Retrieved 19 October 2012. “”Any person or organization depends ultimately on public approval, and is therefore faced with the problem of engineering the public’s consent to a program or goal.””
- ^ Public Relations Reference for Business
- ^ “Smoking in Public Barred for Women; Police Enforce law”
- ^ Butler, John P.. “A Finding Aid to the Collection in the Library of Congress”. Library of Congress. Retrieved April.
- ^ Peters, John Durham; Simonson, Peter (2004). Mass communication and American social thought: key texts, 1919-1968. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 51–57. ISBN 978-0-7425-2839-0.
- ^ Edward Bernays Propaganda (1928) p. 10
- ^ Cutlip, Scott M. (1994). The unseen power: public relations, a history. L. Erlbaum Associates. p. 185. ISBN 0-8058-1464-7.
- ^ “Everett Dean Martin and Edward L. Bernays, ”Are We Victims of Propaganda?” (Library of Congress reproduction from The Forum Magazine, March, 1929)”. Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- ^ “National Thrift Week”. Institute for American Values. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- ^ Bernays, Edward L. (1965). Biography of an idea: memoirs of public relations counsel. Simon and Schuster. p. 606. “I offered to help organize the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy, made up for the most part of Americans of Danish …”
- ^ Hasselriis, Caspar Henrik Wolffsen (1959) (in Danish). Helligdag: erindringer. Udgivet af Dansk samvirke hos E. Munksgaard. p. 143. “… at han vilde engagere den kendte Public Relations Ekspert Edward L. Bernays til at være Raadgiver. … Resultatet blev Dannelsen af »American Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy«, et Navn foreslaaet af Mr. Bernays, som mente, …”
- ^ Jensen, Mette Bastholm; Jensen, Steven L. B. (2003). Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. ISBN 978-87-989305-1-8. “The “Father of Public Relations and Spin” and nephew of Sigmund Freud Edward L. Bernays (1890-1995), was also hired by the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy as a …”
- ^ Rampton, Sheldon; Stauber, John (2001), Trust us, we’re experts, pp. 44f.
- ^ Stephen Bender. Karl Rove & the Spectre of Freud’s Nephew, LewRockwell.com, 2005-02-04
- ^ Alix Spiegel. Freud’s Nephew and the Origins of Public Relations, Morning Edition, 2005-04-22
- ^ Murray N. Rothbard Fluoridation Revisited. The Rothbard-Rockwell Report, January 1993
- ^ BBC. “THE CENTURY OF THE SELF”. THE CENTURY OF THE SELF. peter1979sk. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- ^ Dennis W. Johnson. Routledge Handbook of Political Management, (New York: Routledge, 2009), 314 n. 3; see Edward Bernays, Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel Edward L. Bernays (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965) .
- ^ Stauber, John and Sheldon Rampton. 1999. “The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of PR by Larry Tye.” PR Watch 6:2, Second Quarter, .
- American National Biography v. 2, Oxford University Press, 1999.
- John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, Toxic Sludge Is Good For You: Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry
- Edward Bernays, Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of a Public Relations Counsel
- Edward Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion
- Larry Tye, The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations (1998, ISBN 0-517-70435-8) (excerpt)
- Scott Cutlip, The Unseen Power: Public Relations: A History (1994, ISBN 0-8058-1464-7)
- Stuart Ewen, PR! A Social History of Spin (1996, ISBN 0-465-06168-0, (excerpt)
- Curtis, Adam (2008-11-26). “Century Of Self.1-1 Happiness Machines”. BBC. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- “Freud’s Nephew and the Origins of Public Relations”. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- Marvin Olasky column on his interview with Bernays at Townhall.com
- Wilfred Trotter (1919). Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War – 4th impression, with postscript. New York, MacMillan.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- The Father of Spin
- Visiting Edward Bernays – Chapter 1 of a book by Stuart Ewen (1996)
- Torches of Freedom Video Clip
- Edward L. Bernays tells the story of “Torches of Freedom” in his own words -video clip -1999
- Meet Edward Bernays (audio documentary)
- The Edward L. Bernays papers, 1982-1998 (bulk 1993-1995) are located in the Northeastern University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA.
- Booknotes interview with Larry Tye on The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of Public Relations, September 20, 1998.
“One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It’s simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we’ve been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back.” –Carl Sagan
“In science it often happens that scientists say, ‘You know that’s a really good argument; my position is mistaken,’ and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn’t happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion.” ―Carl Sagan